History is made of great moments of civilization and discoveries, all over the world. It is precisely this History that makes the human species able to advance in its progress and in its discoveries. Through invasions, conquests, war, kingdoms, empires, climax and collapses of civilizations, we return for you to the great dates of the history of France and more generally, of the world. Follow us!
- The Importance of History and Dates to Remember
- The Great Periods
- of World History and France Prehistory: from — 4.5 million years BC
around — 3500 B.C. #8217; Lascaux caves era: frescoes
- of World History and France Prehistory: from — 4.5 million years BC
- Antiquity: from — 3500 BC to 476
- The City-States
- Alexander the Great: 356 — 323 BC
- The Amerindian peoples The
- Celts The
- Olympic Games in Ancient Greece
- The foundation of Rome by Romulus: — 753
- The 7 wonders of the ancient world
- The 7,000 terracotta soldiers in China
- The Gaul War: &# 8211; 58 to — 51 BC
- The Middle Ages: 476 to 1492
- The Treaty of Verdun in 843
- Capetian Kings The
- Magna Carta imposed on the King of England
- The Hundred Years War
- The Great Western Schism (1378-1417)
- The Renaissance: what to remember?
- Modern Times: 1492 to 1789
- The Great Discoveries and the Early Empires
- French authors of the 17th century
- The French Revolution: 1789-1799
- The contemporary era: from 1789 to the present day
- Napoleon Bonaparte
- The Industrial Revolution: the 19th Century
- The First World War: 1914-1918
- The Second World War: 1939-1945
- The French Republic
- The 20th century in a few words
- History and its restarches
- The emergence of a collective consciousness in the 21st century
Plan de l'article
- The importance of history and dates
- The Great Periods of World History and France
The importance of history and dates
A little topo about the importance of the history of France and the world. When you live in a country, it is of course important to know its history, not by borders, but by its culture and customs .
History is the rich fruit of mixtures and divisions, wars, inventions, stories of families, peace, conquests of territories and adventure. We reproach often to the story of having been written by the winners, which in itself is totally true. That said, some major dates are obviously to be remembered as pillars or markers of the History of France or the world .
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History is deeply derived from what human beings have done with it. With her feelings, desires, fears, anger and ambitions. It is known today that the result of all these emotions (yes, history is built on the emotions of people like you and me, and on the decisions of a people and often of a single human being at its head) is often seen in blood and tears.
Through dogmas, beliefs and searches of power, geopolitics and politics have been forged and each nation has developed a distinct identity. It’s gone for a little passage. a review of the history and the great dates that have marked our planet.
The Great Periods of World History and France
History is divided into great periods with regard to human beings:
- The Middle Ages
- Modern Times
- The contemporary era
Prehistory: from — 4.5 million years BC to about — 3500 BC
Throughout the prehistoric period, various types of humans or rather hominids have been identified in many stands. Among them are the Australopithecs, Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Nandertalians and Homo Sapiens Sapiens , at 200000 BC.
We discovered the first settlements in Africa in particular, but also in Eurasia, with the arrival of Homo skilled. Homo erectus has spread throughout the planet, with traces of settlements found in Europe, Asia, China, India and the island of Java.
The Neanderthal man lived mainly in Europe and the Middle East. Homo Sapiens Sapiens has been found in the Middle East, Europe and all continents. Homo Sapiens Sapiens, from which we derive directly, has grown from 200,000 years before our era, to the present day.
Periods to remember on hominids
Australopithèque : 4, 5 million years BC to 1 million years BC.
Homo Habilis : 2.5 to 1.8 million years B.C.
Homo Erectus : from 1 million years before our era to 300,000 years BC.
Man Neanderthal : 250,000 years to 28,000 BC
Homo Sapiens : from 250,000 years/150,000 years before our era to the present day.
The era of Lascaux caves: frescoes
The frescoes of the Lascaux caves would date a priori from 15,000 years BC. This dating corresponds to the Paleolithic, which itself includes several periods:
- Lower Paleolithic: Between 3 million and 300,000 years BC
- The Middle Paleolithic: between 300,000 years and 30,000 years BC
- The Upper Paleolithic: between 30,000 and 10,000 years BC
The various periods of Prehistory saw hominids develop their skills and know-how. Tools, methods of hunting, fishing, cooking, making ceramics, pottery, working materials and metals (stone, bronze, iron, gold).
Gradually, constructions, beliefs and rituals have also developed as well as the way of life in the heart of fauna and flora, and the human relationship.
Antiquity: from — 3500 BC to 476
Antiquity corresponds to an incredible part of history that has seen many cities and empires develop.
The City-States The City-States which began to develop since 2000 BC are counted. The Achaeans settled in Greece and started wars. The Dorians, new invaders arrived in Greece as early as 1200 BC and gave the people of the Greeks by their covenants.
The 8th century saw the construction of city-states in the form of fortifications: the polis. The polish was composed of three fundamental elements that characterize it:
- A civic community : citizens and their
- An agglomerationfamilies : fortified area, town and countryside of the surroundings
- Institutions and laws, the beginnings of what we know today as a framework of society
The largest and most well-known city-states were Athens, Thebes and Sparta. The polis traditionally consisted of the acropolis, a fortified mound with temples and public buildings, and the agora (or public square where any form of commercial and political exchange could be held.
Various political regimes have emerged in these city-states, such as monarchical, ploutocratic, oligarchic, military-totalitarian regimes (Sparta 7th century) and finally, democratic regimes with the famous example of Athens (6th century).
Architectural orders are emerging, along with Doric style, Ionic style and Corinthian style. Finally, with the Greek civilization comes philosophy, the school of wisdom: one cannot mention the evolution of the world by putting aside these three renowned Greek philosophers, who have marked our civilization forever with their writings.
Alexander the Great: 356 — 323 BC Alexander the Great marked the history of the world because he began to conquer through Central Asia, India, Meso. These conquests have marked the territories leaving traces of several “Alexandries” in Egypt, Afghanistan, Asia…
The famous library of Alexandria, which burned, saw the disappearance of a monumental archive of the history of the ancient world in Egypt. Alexandria was founded in Egypt by Alexander the Great who proclaimed himself Pharaoh in 331 BC. Ptolemy, his successor, declared himself king. Many mysteries revolve around the library of Alexandria and its destruction by Julius Caesar, Theophilus or Caliph Omar (contested). It contained homeric manuscripts, poems, the foundation of Greek education.
The Native American Peoples The Amerindian and pre-Columbian peoples correspond to the Maya, the Incas and the Aztecs, which are the most known.These peoples themselves divide into many peoples and ethnicities, fascinating by their civilization.
The pre-Columbian civilization has highlighted the foundation of kingdoms and the construction of numerous monuments. From South to North (South and Central America), we retain the civilizations of Mapuche, Aymaras, Quechuas, Incas, Mayas, Olmecs and Aztecs in present-day Mexico.
These peoples have spread, with their specifics, in the Andean regions, in the Cusco basin, around Ecuador, around Lake Titicaca or Patagonia.
The Celts were both warriors and extraordinary traders. Their arrival marks the end of Prehistory The Celts . Traces written in the 6th century BC speak of barbarians, with all sorts of prejudices that it is important to be wary of.
The Celts spread from Marseilles to the East, including Britain, Wales, Galicia, Iberia, the Peloponnese and present-day Turkey.
The Gaul War (-58 > -51) weakened the Celtic populations who are struggling to survive in Brittany and Great Britain.
The history of the Celts reveals specificities in the structure of social life and sedentary lifestyle. The land was worked, Indo-European was spoken, and funerary rites were observed.
Crafts developed with the Celts, as well than trade . Salt, cold cuts, metal, livestock, preserved meat, bronze, ceramics, wine… These exchanges were international. The Celts developed evolved funeral rites, with particular attention given to the perception of the soul.
Each Celtic people were fully autonomous and hierarchical in a viable society. Warriors were in charge of controlling the exploitation of mines and estates. Major political decisions were taken as well as economically. We note the appearance of important people in the hierarchy: Druids, judges, educators, ambassadors, scholars, priests, political advisers.
The rest of the population, women, farmers, slaves, traders, craftsmen, were obviously present and everyone enjoyed certain limited or extended rights. It is to say that women had rights comparable to those of men .
Iron was heavily worked during the period of the Celtic peoples, especially for weapons and artifacts. The wheel and the 4-wheeled tank make their appearance. The prestige of the Celts also expanded thanks to their ability to be excellent warriors .
Olympia, seat of the Olympics, state a sanctuary dedicated to Zeus. games were held there every 4 years Olympic Games in Ancient Greece following many processions, prayers, sacrifices. The best athletes of the cities then competed for 7 days on disciplines such as:
- The long jump
- Javelin Throw
- The races
- The struggle
- The pugilat
- Tank Race
- The pancrace
All these events constituted performances that consisted of valuing endurance and strength of athletes. Subsequently, the Pentathlon was set up including disc throwing, long jump, javelin throwing, running and wrestling.
Today, the Olympic Games still exist, in a very different form from the original principle. That said, the Olympic flame still burns every 4 years. Some truce has been observed due to the war (world wars. The editions of 1916, 1940 and 1944 have been cancelled.
Today and long after the ancient Olympiads, it is for athletes to give the best of them, since 1896 and the revival of the Olympic Games. The ancient Olympiads seem to have ended in 393 AD.
The foundation of Rome by Romulus: — 753 According to legend, Romulus would have founded Rome on Mount Palatine on 21 April 753 BC Jesus Christ. The city of Rome then developed on the banks of the Tiber River and now gives the capital of Italy known, rich in its culture and history.
The 7 hills of Rome then give the city a natural rampart aspect. Housed between the Aventine, the Caelius, the Capitol, the Esquilin, the Palatine, the Quirinal and the Viminal, Rome gradually develops while retaining its defensive aspect.
From the founding of Rome with Romulus, seven kings succeeded each other in the mythology and history of the city, until 509 BC. These are Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Tullus Hostilius, Ancus, Martius, Tarquin the Elder, Servius Tullius and Tarquin the Superb.
The 7 Wonders of the Ancient World Here are for you the 7 wonders of the ancient world, architectural achievements of monumental scale
- The Pyramid of Kheops
- The Hanging Gardens of Babylon
- The statue of Zeus in Olympia
- The Temple of Artemis in Ephesus
- The Mausoleum of Halicarnassus
- The Colossus of Rhodes
- The lighthouse of Alexandria
Of these 7 wonders of the ancient world remains only the Pyramid of Kheops in Egypt, in Giza.
In present-day China, a real giant mausoleum was discovered by chance in 1974 near the village of Xi’an. It is the mausoleum of Shi Huangdi 7,000 Terracotta Soldiers in China , the first emperor to unify China and its wall.
In this mausoleum, 4 meters deep, we find an impressive amount of terracotta figurines , including:
- 591 statues of warriors with their bows
- 24 horses
- All arranged in front of guard bodies of 72 rows and Main body of 38 columns.
Today, it is a 2000 m² site with a circular tomb in the center. It is the mausoleum of Emperor Shi Huangdi, who is known for his action of conquest, construction and unification of China. Ancient China and Shi Huangdi’s reign ended in — 210 at his funeral.
The War of Gaul: — 58 to — 51 BC When we think Wars of Gaul, we think of Julius Caesar, of course, who became governor of Gaul in — 58 BC. He is a victorious general who knows how to revenge and remains etched in history for his merciless side.
In -52 BC, the young Gaul leader Vercingetorix admitted his defeat, which leads to the pacification of Gaul, with the siege of Alesia. Gaul is then fully annexed and the Roman territory extends to the Rhine . Caesar was then the leader of the Roman world in all its splendor.
The Roman army is growing stronger and the implementation of techniques such as the turtle appear with the legionaries, real military machines. With their catapults, the Romans made excellent seats.
In the line of Julius Caesar, here are the 12 names of the Roman emperors to remember:
- Caesar: reign from -49 to -44 BC
- Augustus: reign from -27 to 14
- Tiberius: reign from 14 to 37
- Caligula: reign from 37 to 41
- Claude: reign from 41 to 54
- Nero: reign from 54 to 68
- Galba: reign from 58 to 69
- Othon: reigns in 69
- Vitellus: reigns in 69
- Vespasian: reign from 69 to 79
- Titus: reign from 79 to 81
- Domitian: reign from 81 to 96
- Nerva: reign from 96 to
The Gallo-Roman world that developed in the 2nd century AD is at peace and ports are developing, as well as family life, shops, social and urban life, hard house and rural life.
The Middle Ages: 476 to 1492
We find the Middle Ages between the end of antiquity and the beginning of the Renaissance, that is, from the end of the fifth century to the end of the 15th century. So it lasts about a thousand years.
The Treaty of Verdun in 843 The Empire of Charlemagne was divided 43 years after the coronation of the emperor. It values the Roman model with religion, culture, and unity. But in 843, the Treaty of Verdun ended the wars of succession within the descendants of Charlemagne, with the division of the unified empire:
- The Kingdom of Charles the Bald
- The Kingdom of Lothaire
- The kingdom of Louis the Germanic
The Capetian Kings The Capetians go back to the Francs. This dynasty reigned from 987 to 1328 at the time of the death of Charles IV the Bel.
They succeed the Valois, then Bourbons and Bourbons-Orléans. The Capetian kings are as follows:
- Hugh Capet
- Robert the Pious
- Philip I
- Louis VI the Gros
- Louis VII the Young
- Philip II Augustus
- Louis VIII the Lion
- Louis IX (Saint-Louis)
- Philip III the Bold
- Philip IV the Beautiful
- Louis X the Hutin
- John I the Posthumous
- Philip V the Long
- Charles IV the Beautiful
This Great Charter is an agreement imposed on Jean Sans Terre Magna Carta imposed on the King of England . He ruled from 1199 to 1216. With Magna Carta, it is established that the king must consult a set of laws and customs. This Charter then protects the free men of the royal officers. In the event of a problem, this ensures a fair trial, a major step forward in human rights.
The Magna Carta was sealed in 1215 and thus healthily limits the royal power in 63 clauses presenting key changes such as:
- Established feudal principles and the limits of king’s power
- The obligation for the monarch to consult the barons before any tax levy
- Guaranteed protection of free men (except serfs) against royal officers
- The right to a fair trial in criminal proceedings
- Permission to merchants to enter and leave England without limit
- Finally, the Magna Carta states that widows ‘have to pay in order to receive an inheritance and that they are not obliged to remarry
Consequences direct signs of the signing of the Magna Carta in 1215 are the limitations of the powers of monarchs as they succeed each other. This historical document has inspired many writings and texts in order to define more precisely the principles of law and those of government. In 1791, we note the United States Declaration of Rights and the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
This historic war saw France and England clashed for 116 years, between 1337 and 1453 The Hundred Years War . Many conflicts emerged, cut off by truce. This is a very dark period in history that is a real drama but ends in pacification.
The Great Western Schism is a major date in world history in the sense that it marks a real crisis of the Papacy. The Church has been shaken The Great Western Schism (1378-1417) by crises for nearly 40 years, from Rome to Avignon. From the two-headed papacy, we switch to the tricephalous papacy.
Care will be taken not to confuse the Great Schism of the West with the Great Eastern Schism of 1054 , which marks the separation of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches.
The Renaissance is a magnificent and prolific period that saw the development of many advances, from printing ( 1453 The Renaissance: what to remember? ) to humanism, through science, the arts and literature. As all these areas overgrow, human critical thinking is nourished and allows more people to gain access to culture. Culture which until then was summed up to the transmission of the Gospels through the Church.
If we were to give a The definition of Humanism , which defines rebirth and which will symbolize a wave of advances in thought throughout Europe, would be as follows:
Doctrine which aims to develop the qualities of Man
Thought is put forward, particularly with the resurrection of the thought of the Greco-Latins. After 15 centuries of Christianity, what is the legacy and what are the new issues?
Observation and experience are valued, knowledge is spread quietly among the populations.
Modern Times: 1492 to 1789
Modern Times are the time of great discoveries in the world and especially in Europe. The New World emerges with the impetus of Europe while on the other side, in China, India or Turkey, internal wars or a certain withdrawal and a lack of organisation does are not conducive to the emergence of new approaches necessary to major historical discoveries.
Europe is experiencing at that time a force that comes from a good ability to organize, to prioritize the states. The other continents are still unknown The Great Discoveries and the First Empires and the motivations of Europeans are emerging, with economic, scientific and religious motives, but also a great thirst for knowledge.
The Portuguese and Spanish conquer maritime routes, and explorations are finally possible with the arrival of great advances in navigation. The caravel, the compass, the astrolabe are among the inventions that carry these motivations. From Vasco de Gamma to Christopher Columbus via Magellan, Cartier and Cortès…
Explorations certainly answer many questions but are also the focus of sudden changes and shocks of civilizations. Diseases are coming, some settlements turn out to be disasters at the ethnic level. The beginnings of globalization are indeed there, with its advantages and many wrongs. Europe was then the centre of world trade . Relations with Canada are established, Amerindian nations are suffering, and trade desks are numerous and prosperous.
The Church also plays her role throughout this period, with increased and often forced evangelization, with missions and colonizations. Rivalries continue to exist between Catholics and Protestants. On the European side, the great advances are made thanks to the discoveries of Copernicus and Newton . It is now known that the Earth revolves around the Sun (1543) and the laws on gravitation Universal are stated (1687 ).
The major dates of French history include major advances in literature, with the emergence of new forms of writing French authors of the seventeenth century . The invention of printing has truly revolutionized culture and access to writing, which is no longer limited to religious writings at all.
Theatre, novel, poetry and literature in general are booming with Molière, Racine, Boileau, La Fontaine, Corneille, La Bruyère… Authors to discover absolutely. At the same time, we are under the reign of Louis XIV ( 1661-1715 ). Many wars are being waged, with many Treaties leading to the necessary pacification. At the same time, French counters are developing in India and encourage trade.
The French Revolution: 1789-1799 The French Revolution is a major turning point in the history of France. The monarchy ends in blood and tears but gives way to a new form of governance. The people are resuming their sovereign rights and human rights are about to be affirmed.
The contemporary era: from 1789 to the present day
Contemporary times saw lifestyles change drastically, with the emergence of new ways of producing. The social order is also shaken and changes lead to profound changes in France and Great Britain. At the same time, the 18th century is also unfortunately a dark period, with the emergence of slavery , which goes hand in hand with the discoveries of the territories and their over-exploitation.
Napoleon Bonaparte settled as the first Consul of France in 1799 and asEmperor in 1804 Napoleon Bonaparte . Napoleon Bonaparte conquered and redesigned the political geography of Europe.
A major turning point was taken with the arrival of the Industrial Revolution in Europe. Machines are coming, innovations are fast and consistent. The agricultural revolution is also taking place, and production is able to be transformed. Textiles, food The Industrial Revolution: the 19th Century , can finally bring a change in the way of life and consumption.
With the arrival of machinery and steam, England became a gigantic workshop. Trains develop with the steam locomotive. The use of coal is changing and energy sources are revolutionized. The power of production brings the specializations of workers and improvements in techniques. The work is then able to be divided by tasks and be better organized. Working in the chain brings both a productive cadence but also a deficiency and serious questions on the human level: is man the machine?
Social classes are felt with the emergence of new popular classes. The middle classes assert themselves, the bourgeois sometimes has the wrong role, and for good reason. Marx’s thought (class struggle ) comes and encourages the organization of workers into political parties.
At the same time, photography and cinema are emerging… Culture is taking a major turning point. The telephone was invented in 1876 : the paternity of this invention is controversial, between Gray and Bell.
The First World War was triggered by the assassination, on June 28, 1914, of an archduke. The structural and cyclical aspect of the geopolitics of the time explained the causes of this war. In all, the conflict is a real tear that will sclerosate the whole world, between Austria-Hungary The First World War: 1914-1918 , the Ottoman Empire, Russia, France, the British Empire, Poland, the African countries, Belgium, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, the United States, Japan and many others&# 8230; all in a climate of emergence of nationalisms.
The Allies and the Triplice are at war, a war that will forever change the face of society. The ways of waging war and healing are also evolving. We also keep in mind the Spanish Flu of 1918, which killed nearly 50,000,000 people. The First World War will have made 18.6 million deaths , between the military and civilians.
World War II was strongly marked by the use of the atomic bomb, invented on the principle of radioactivity in the nineteenth century. Against the background of tensions and Hitler’s coming to power in 1933 as Chancellor. Anti-Semitism finds its foundations and Jewish genocide World War II: 1939-1945 (Holocaust) is implemented with method.
The Second World War was an armed conflict that essentially between the Allies and the Axis (Third Reich, Fascist Italy, Empire of Japan). Dissatisfaction caused by the end of the First World War and certain expansionist ambitions are the causes of this devastating conflict.
Many wars were born following the invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939. Countries enter war in cascading and join the Allies : China, Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom and British Empire, France and French Colonial Empire, Nepal, South African Union, Canada, Norway, Denmark, Belgium, Luxembourg, Greece, Malta, Kingdom of Yugoslavia, etc.
The attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 pushed other nations to join the Allies, as did the United Nations Declaration in January 1942, the Landing in Normandy on 6 June 1944 and the bombing of Hiroshima on August 6, 1945.
The Second World War officially ended in Europe on May 8, 1945 with the surrender of the Third Reich. this armed conflict is the most devastating in mankind, with 62 million casualties worldwide , mostly civilians.
On 2 September 1945, the Empire of Japan surrendered unconditionally, leading to the total defeat of the Axis. This war is at the origin of a vast collective trauma that is still felt today in the memories of each family. The notion of war crime and crime against humanity emerges, as is the newly established super powers; the United States and the USSR . The old imperial powers are declining and with them the movement of colonization.
The French Republic France has a succession of Republics:
- The First Republic (1792-1804)
- The Second Republic (1848-1852)
- The Third Republic (1870-1940)
- The Fourth Republic (1940-1958)
- The Fifth Republic (1958 to the present day)
The twentieth century is an opportunity to see the development of Europe and its 28 countries, mass consumption, new tensions between great powers (Cold War). Mao Zedong’s China developed from 1949 to 1976 as well as communisms. The Cambodian genocide (1975-1979) The twentieth century in a few words , a “collateral damage” of the Vietnam War, caused nearly 2 million deaths and still trauma in the heart of the population.
At the same time, consumption patterns are developing, travel is possible, paid holidays arrive, Human Rights are clarified, artistic currents and satire are in full excitement: theatre, painting, music, writing, cinema, photography, contemporary art…
Society is systematically portrayed by authors or composers: it is said that literature is a means of expression that represents an excellent barometer of thought. The rights of women but alsohomosexuals (voting, work, contraception, abortion, gay marriage, etc.) Freedom of expression becomes dear to the values of nations. Journalism is getting stronger, critical thinking is booming even if it is an everyday fight.
With traumatic episodes such as segregation in the United States (1960s) and uninhibited racism, everyone learns lessons from such events. There is also the superb civil rights movement with Martin Luther King .
Many other inspiring personalities such as Nelson Mandela, Mahatma Gandhi , great symbols of peace and struggle at the same time.
Today it is said that it takes at least 10 years before considering that a date “made history”. History is constantly evolving and opinions are as diverse and varied as the number of people on Earth! With the writing of History comes the concept of revisionism History and its restarts . The views remain healthy and everything lies eternally in the ability to question a fact.
Today terrorists are developing, especially since 2001 with the attack of the World Trade Center, which contributes to the rise of racism and xenophobia . Countries are in tension and there is once again the rise of nationalisms in Europe and around the world. With climatic phenomena and internal wars that cause people suffer, population migration movements are intensifying. Reactions are not waiting, with either momentum asylum , or refusals guided by ancestral fears.
And so goes the history of conflict in conflict, peace in peace, humanist evolutions into regressions. Today, it is believed that the vast melting pot is a wealth and that the planet belongs to everyone who resides in it.
There are major changes in human perceptions, particularly with the affirmation of ethnic communities and “minorities”. The environment becomes a current subject and the ways of consuming evolve with the emergence of a collective consciousness. The concept ofethics is present and thedesire for well-being develops at the heart of populations in saturation of work. All this, against a backdrop of unstable politics and pandemics that will forever change our vision of the human, of the world, of our strengths and of our weaknesses.
It is to say that history is an eternal beginning again . Through the learning of the great dates, opinions are formed and contribute to the formation of critical thinking. So don’t just learn by heart your history dates, but learn the lessons that will make you move forward and advance humanity at the same time!
Today, in countries where excessive consumption comes to its point of no return, a need for a bursting of collective consciousness The emergence of a collective consciousness in the 21st century emerges and encourages beautiful initiatives.
Malraux said that the 21st century would be spiritual or not (1946). History will give him wrong or reason. Postmodernity is on the way in Western societies, and the way of perceiving others and our “neighbor” is in full shift. Western societies have to learn in a return to the essentials : relational, bond, human, love and healing. What remains of the human being after his passage depends on him and the actions taken by each person.
Greek philosophy, Zen and Taoist thinking leave us concepts to work for the future of mankind : temperance, tolerance, measurement, reception, importance of self-management and consideration of others in its holistic form. Today, culture remains one of the only ways to spread messages that are healthy struggles against hatred and wars . Hopefully, the 21st century will prove that the heart can guide Man by keeping him away from his fears!